White Rumped Vulture, Severly Endangered Spices in the World,Characteristics, Population and Decline Causes



 1. Scientific classification

        Kingdom:     anamalia
        Phylum:    chordata
        Class:    aves  (warm blooded vertibrates)
        Order:         Accipitriformes
        Family:        Accipitridae 




2. Genetic History   
            
The white-rumped vulture is an Old World vulture native to South and Southeast Asia. It has been listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 2000, as the population severely declined. Major cause of White-rumped vultures death was kidney failure caused by diclofenac poisoning.These Vultures use their sense of smell and vision to find food.

3.Physical Characteristics

The white-rumped vulture is a typical, medium-sized vulture, with an unfeathered head and neck, very broad wings, and short tail feathers. It is much smaller than the Eurasian Griffon. It has a white neck ruff. The adult's whitish back, rump, and underwing coverts contrast with the otherwise dark plumage. The body is black and the secondaries are silvery grey. The head is tinged in pink and bill is silvery with dark ceres. The nostril openings are slit-like. 
  
Juveniles are largely dark and take about four or five years to acquire the adult plumage. In flight, the adults show a dark leading edge of the wing and has a white wing-lining on the underside. The undertail coverts are black.

weight : 4.4 kg (Adult)
Length: 75 – 85 cm 

according to Encyclopedia of Life
  
4.Distribution and habitat 

The white-rumped vulture breeds  found in East Pakistan, Nepal, India, South East Afghanistan, South East Iran and Bangladesh. It was formally also widely distributed in South-East Asia, but is now almost
extinct there. Usually found in the lowlands (up to 1,000m) but exceptionally as high
as 3100m.


The vulture builds its nest on tall trees often near human habitations in northern and central India,
Pakistan, Nepal and Southeast Asia, laying one egg. The Population is mostly resident. It is a
scavenger feeding mostly from carcasses of dead animals which it finds by soaring high in thermals.




5.population

In the 1980s, the global population was estimated at several million individuals, and it was thought to be the most abundant large bird of prey in the world.As of 2016, the global population was estimated at less than 10,000 mature individuals.

6.Diet  and Feeding           

White-rumped Vulture feeds exclusively on carrion, mainly remains of cattle. Unfortunately, this food was the cause of large declines in vultures' populations since the 1990s. The veterinary use of Diclofenac leaves remain in the cattle carcasses, involving poisoning for vultures and other scavengers.

Both Old World and New World vultures are scavenging birds, feeding mostly from carcasses of dead animals. Old World vultures find carcasses exclusively by sight

Turkey Vultures use their sense of smell to find carrion. Other vultures, like the Black Vulture, rely upon their vision to find food, often locating carrion by watching where other vultures go. ... Some mercaptans smell like rotting cabbage or eggs. They and related chemicals are released as carcasses decompose.



8.Reproduction                   

Breeding season start from October to March-April. Egg laying period is September to October.These vultures sometimes nest in small colonies in trees. The nest is made with sticks and lined with green leaves by both adults.Usually, the female lays a single egg,The eggs hatch after about 30 to 35 days of incubation
Parent birds are highly attentive during the first 2 months of the chick's life to defend it from stormy weather Mainly rain and Predators:






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