Dogs,Taxonomy of Dog ,When Was the Dog First Domesticated




Conservation Status:   


Domestic

Scientific Classification:


kingdom:    Mammalian   (multi cellular organism that consume organic material, take oxygen to brethe, are able to move, reproduction is done sexually)


phylum:         Chordata (animal that have backbone or spine)

Class:             Mammalia(mammal are vertebrate animal have mammary glands in females produce milk for feeding their young, have  fur or hair, and have their ear outside and visible)

Order:             carnivora(carnivora is the class of mammals that mostly eat flesh)

Family:         canidae(family of flesh eating animal look like dogs)


Dog was the first specie among its canidae tribe who was domesticated, dogs long association with human make them distinguished and is traced back to 15000 years ago.

Since Dogs have been doing many roles for humans, such as hunting, pulling loads, protection, helping herding, police and military, companionship and, more recently, assisting disabled people and therapeutic roles. This influence on human being has given dogs  the title of man's best friend.

Dogs provide human a sense of emotional well being thanks to the unconditional love they give, which is why they're also great company and comfort for people who live alone. By Owning a dog help people to recover from trauma, such as bereavement.

Dog Anatomy

Dogs are basically predator that kill and eat other organisms,the dog has powerful muscles, fused wrist, strong bones, a cardiovascular system that supports both sprinting and endurance, and teeth for catching and tearing the flesh.

Dog Senses

Studies have shown that dogs have strong senses then other species o their family.The dog's senses include vision, hearing, sense of smell, sense of taste, touch and sensitivity to the earth's magnetic field. Another study  have suggested that dogs can see the earth magnetic field.

Tail

Different dog breed have different shapes of tails.From straight, straight up, sickle, curled, to cork-screw.One of the primary functions of a dog tail is to communicate their emotional state, which can be important in getting along with others. 

Size and Weight

Dogs are highly variable in height and weight. The smallest  adult dog was a Yorkshire Terrier, that have  only 6.3 cm (2.5 in) at the shoulder, 9.5 cm (3.7 in) in length along the head-and-body, and weighed only 113 grams (4.0 oz). The largest dog was a Saint Bernard which weighed 167.6 kg (369 lb) and was 250 cm (98 in) from the nose  to the tail. The tallest dog is a Great Dane that stands 106.7 cm (42.0 in) at the shoulder


Life Span

The typical lifespan of dogs varies according to type of breeds, but for most breed the median longevity, the age at which half the dogs in a population have died and that of half are still alive, ranges from 10 to 13 years.

Reproduction
In domestic dogs, sexual maturity comes in around six to twelve months of age for both males and females, but in large breed dogs this can be delayed untill upto 2 years. Reaching the maturity time female dogs will have their first estrous cycle. They will experience subsequent estrous cycles semiannually, during which the body get prepare for pregnancy. At the peak of their cycle, females will come into estrus, being mentally and physically prepare to receive to copulation.Because the ova survive and are capable of being fertilized for a week after ovulation, it  possible for more than one male to sire the same litter.

Dogs bears their litters roughly 58_68 days after fertilization, with an average 63 days, although the length of gestation can vary. An average litter consists of about 5-6 puppies, though this number may vary  based on the breed of dog. In general, toy dogs produce from one to 4 puppies in each litter, while much larger breeds may average as many as 12 puppies.


Behavior Towards Human

Dogs as the oldest species being domesticated, traced back to estimates range from 9,000–30,000 years BC As a result physical and social evolution, dogs have acquired the ability to understand and communicate with humans, and they are uniquely attuned to human behaviors.Behavioral scientists have uncovered a surprising set of social-cognitive abilities in the domestic dog. These abilities are not possessed by the dog' closest canine relatives nor by other intelligent mammals such as great apes but rather parallel some of the social-cogn.
Dogs generally show reduced fear and aggression compared to wolves. some of these genes have been associated with aggression in some dog breeds, indicating their importance in both the initial domestication and then later in breed formation. Traits of high sociability and lack of fear in dogs may include genetic modifications related to Williams-Beuren syndrome in humans, which cause hypersociability at the expense of problem solving ability.


Communication to Human 


Dog communication is how dogs convey information to other dogs, how they understand messages from humans, and how humans translate the information that dogs are transmitting. Communication behaviors of dogs include eye gaze, facial expression, vocalization, body posture (including movements of bodies and limbs) and gustatory communication (scents, pheromones and taste). Humans communicate to dogs by using vocalization, hand signals and body posture.


See Also:    Why Dogs Chew Object, Understanding Reasons and Dogs Psychological Behavior

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